- Cellular mechanisms involved in neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in response to diseases and chemical toxicity.
- Proteomic and genomic changes in response to endocrine diseases.
- Developing protocols and facilities for proteome, lipid and carbohydrate analysis.
The focus of my laboratory has evolved over the past several decades to investigate hormones of the hypothalamic, pituitary, adrenal, pancreatic-axis (HPAP-Axis) under normal, disease or chemically challenged conditions. My research involves studying the expression, sorting, processing and secretion of HPAP peptide hormones such as vasopressin, oxytocin, insulin and ACTH. I have been funded to study these processes in diseases such as familial neurohypophyseal diabetes insipidus, autism and in response to nerve agents such as sarin. I am also involved in research on obstetrical/gynecological related diseases, such as pre-eclampsia, preterm birth, interstitial cystitis, and endometriosis. My long-term goals are to identify and investigate the effects that these diseases have on the regulation and dysfunction of the neuroendocrine and endocrine system.
Research Line 1:
Protection against sarin-induced neurotoxicity via an in vivo caspase inhibitor
The latest avenue of research in my laboratory has been to determine if neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation in the brain in response to the nerve agent sarin can be attenuated or affected by an inhibitor of apoptosis, i.e., Q-VD-OPh. The experiments involved exposure to sarin followed at one hour by the administration of Q-VD-OPh with or without diazepam. Neurodegeneration is analyzed by staining for TUNEL, GFAP, and other stains designed to test for cell death. Neuroinflammation was determined by using the Bio-Rad BioPlex 200 bead based instrument to analyze up to 23 different cytokines in amygdala, hippocampus and piriform cortex of the brain. We also have studied apoptosis using a new Bioplex kit that can measure four different apoptotic markers. This project was funded by a Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats (CounterACT) Exploratory/Developmental Projects in Translational Research (R21) NIH-R21NS072103 that ran from 2010 to 2013.
Research Line 2:
Proteomic changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in response to chemical nerve agents, prophylactic treatments and insecticides
In this research line we have been investigating the effects that exposure to chemical nerve agents, i.e., sarin; prophylactics, e.g., physostigmine or pyridostigmine; or insecticides, e.g., chlorpyrifos, have on endocrine disruption of the HP-axis and endocrine peptides and proteins in mice. This has become an exciting new area of research for my laboratory. The data indicate that specific proteins in the HP-axis and pancreas are affected by the acetylcholinesterase inhibitors. This is significant because it suggests mechanisms for toxicity as well as treatment in cases of nerve agent exposure.
- This research has developed along two connected pathways. In the first, we studied the effects of pyridostigmine (PB), physostigmine (PYR) and sarin (GB) to affect hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase activity and protein. Several papers were conflicted on whether pyridostigmine could cross the blood brain barrier. We show that there are acute (< less than 15 min) effects of PB on the AChE activity in the hypothalamic region of the brain, but not the cortex, similar to the effects PHY has on these areas. We also show a similar effect with sarin.
- In the second, we have investigated the effect of these chemical agents, i.e., PB, PYR and GB, on the proteins and peptide hormones of the HP-axis. We have found significant changes with subacute treatment of the tissues. We used SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry and now MALDI-TOF/TOF MS for these projects.
Research Line 3:
Clinical studies on Ventilator Associated Pneumonia
In this clinical study with the department of surgery at Miami Valley Hospital, I worked with a team of surgeons, research nurses, and pharmacists to evaluate the changes occuring in the lungs during the shift to pneumonia in patients on a ventilator. We analyzed 27 cytokines, as well as numerous other proteins and compounds for this study. The results clearly show that by day 3, a number of cytokines were significantly increased in the bronchial fluids from pneumonia patients but not in those that were negative for pneumonia. These studies are ongoing.
Research Line 4:
Clinical studies on preterm labor and PCOS
In these two separate studies with the department of obstetrics and gynexology at Miami Valley Hospital, we have been investigating cytokines in both the cervico-vaginal secretions (pre-term labor) and in the follicular fluid (PCOS) from patients. We have also been analyzing enzymes found in the amniotic fluid from preterm labor patients to determine a biomarker for preterm labor. The results are encouraging in both studies and are being prepared for publication.
Research Line 5:
Establish protocols and facilities for proteomic analysis
My laboratory has been using protein procedures to study changes in cells and tissues for years. However, now with the advent of “proteomics” we have begun to push forward into new areas of research using advanced proteomic tools, i.e., IonTrap mass spectrometry, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, Free-Flow Electrophoresis for protein separation, 2D-IEF gel electrophoresis, protein and peptide in-gel digests and extraction, and peptide and protein sequencing.
- The Kettering Foundation provided funding to purchase a Bruker HTCUltra High Capacity nanoESI IonTrap Mass Spectrometer and Free flow electrophoresis system. These two pieces of equipment were used to establish a proteomic center.
- Through the Boonshoft Innovation Fund we purchased and are using a Bruker Autoflex III MALDI-TOF/TOF mass spectrometer for high end mass spectrometry. We have used this equipment to study peptide hormones in the HPA/P axis in response to many different types of treatment.
- We have also been using it for peptide identification for a number of projects in collaboration with numerous other laboratories.
- We have been collaborating with Dr. Nadja Grobe in our department to develop use of the MALDI-TOF MS for MALDI-Imaging. In this technique, tissue cryosections are applied to a conductive slide and imaged in the MS by rastering the laser over the cryosection. In this way, proteomic and lipidomic profiles can be established and analyzed in the tissue sections.
- Likewise, we have been working to develop TLC-MALDI-Imaging to analyze lipids separated by organic solvents on conductive TLC plates. This technology is very exciting and allows us to develop a lipidomic profile in addition to the proteomic profile. It also allows us to more accurately assess the types of lipids and modifications to lipids expressed in cells or released from cells.
- We have developed protocols for separating proteins on FPLC using the Bio-Rad DuoFlow and Bio-Rad NGC FPLC systems and 2D-IEF gels (BioRad-Criterion System).
- We have purchased a Bio-Rad BioPlex 200 bead based system for analyzing proteins such as cytokines, metabolites, e.g., insulin, adiponectin, and other markers of disease in humans, mice and rats. This instrument allows us to take protein analysis beyond the limitations of ELISA by multiplexing upwards of 40 different analytes per 50 microliter aliquot of tissue lysate or body fluid. Analyses have been completed on: serum, saliva, tissue lysates from brain, skin, and wound exudatess, cervicovaginal secretions, amniotic fluid, urine, and CSF.
Biology, B.S. (1985), Wright State University, Dayton, OH
Biology, M.S. (1988), Wright State University, Dayton, OH
Biochemistry, Ph.D. (1991), The Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA
Postdoctoral Research Fellow (1991-1996), National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD
PTX7020-A90 Online Course- Course Director Lab Management (MD/MS) 2019- present
PTX7020-2 Online Course- Course Director Lab Management 2015- present
PTX7010 Course Director Research Techniques (P/T MS Program) 2001- present
PTX7020-1 Course Director- Laboratory Management 2010- present
SCIENTIFIC GRANT REVIEW COMMITTEES
2020 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. R21 Study Section Reviewer (11/03-04/20).
2020 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U54/U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/05-06/20).
2019 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U54/U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/21-22/19).
2018 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U54/U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/08-09/18).
2017 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U54/U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/16-17/17).
2016 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. R21 Study Section Reviewer (07/08/16)
2016 CDMRP-DOD Gulf War Illness Epidemiology & Biomarkers Grant Review Panel (1/6-8/16)
2015 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/12/2015).
2014 NIH Small Business Endocrinology, Metabolism, Nutrition, and Reproductive Sciences special emphasis panel (ZRG1 EMNR-S 10) Study Section Reviewer (11/06/2014).
2014 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. R21 Study Section Reviewer (07/11/2014).
2014 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U01 Study Section Reviewer (03/28/2014).
2013 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. R21 Study Section Reviewer (06/09/2013).
2012 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. R21 Study Section Reviewer (07/09/2012).
2012 NIH CounterAct Study Section Member Molecular, Cellular & Developmental Neurosciences Integrated Review Group. U54 Study Section Reviewer (03/22/2012).
2012 CDMRP-DOD Autism Research Program (ARP) Pilot Award Peer Review Panel (01/11/12)
2011 NIH CounterAct Special Emphasis Meeting- Research for Countermeasures Against Chemical Threats- U01 Study Section Reviewer (July 14, 2011)
2010 CDMRP-DOD Gulf War Illness Grant Review Panel IA (September 26 & 27 2010)
2010 CDMRP-DOD Gulf War Illness Grant Review Panel IA – Teleconference Review (April 6, 2010)
2009 CDMRP-DOD (Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program- Dept of Defense) Gulf War Illness Grant Review Panel IA (October 28-30, 2009)
2009 NIH Stage 1 Challenge Grant Application Review – Subject Matter Expert- Proteomics (June 2009)
2006 Indiana 21st Century Fund/Indiana Economic Development Corporation.
Proteomic Proposal Review
2004 National Science Foundation (NSF)- ad hoc Grant Reviewer
2003 National Science Foundation (NSF)- ad hoc Grant Reviewer
1999 Beta Award Review Committee- WSU Kettering Award Committee
1996 Fellows Award for Research Excellence- (NIH) Biochemistry II Study Section Head
Grunwald, Jr., W.C., Cool, D.R. Proteomic and Genomic Endocrine Responses in Oxytocin Knockout Mice. Med Res Archives 7: 11 1-16 (2019).
M. Mari, W., Simman, R, Younes, S., Naqvi, J., Abdelfateh, A., Oroszi, T., Cool, D.R., Travers, J. B. Usage of Oasis Ultra with Negative Pressure Wound Therapy Hasten the Healing Rate in Stage IV Pressure Ulcers. Wounds 31 (5) 117-122, 2019.
Bahado-Singh RO, Sonek J, McKenna D, Cool DR, Aydas B, Turkoglu O, Bjorndahl T, Mandal R, Wishart D, Friedman P, Graham SF, Yilmaz A., Artificial Intelligence and amniotic fluid multiomics analysis: The prediction of perinatal outcome in asymptomatic short cervix. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2019 54: 110-118. doi: 10.1002/uog.20168.
Harrison, K.A., Romer, E. Weyerbacher, J., Ocana, J.A., Sahu, R. Murphy, R.C., Smith2, T.A., Rapp, C., Borchers, C., Cool, D.R., Simman, R. Travers, J.B., Enhanced Platelet-Activating Factor Synthesis Facilitates Acute and Delayed Effects of Ethanol-Intoxicated Thermal Burn Injury. J Invest Dermatol. 2018 Nov;138(11):2461-2469. doi: 10.1016/j.jid.2018.04.039. Epub 2018 May 30. PMID: 29857067Lebeau, P., Platko, K., Al-
Hashimi, A., Šárka Lhoták, J.H.B., Holzapfel, N., Cool, D.R., Trigatti, B., Seidah, N.G., Austin, R.C., Loss-of-function PCSK9 variants that are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) evade detection by GRP78 and fail to cause ER stress. J. Biol. Chem. 2018. 293:19 p7329-7349. DOI 10.1074/jbc.RA117.001049
Bahado-Singh, R, Poon, L, Yilmaz, A, Syngelaki, A., Turkoglu, O, Kumar, P, Kirma. J, Allos, M, Zhao, P, Li, J, Graham, S, Cool, D., Nicolaides. K., Integrated Proteomics and Metabolomics. Scientific Reports (2017),7; 16189 [DOI:10.1038s41598-107-15882-9].
Sroga-Rios JM, Martinez AM, Cool DR, DiPaola KB, Lindheim SR. Elevated levels of diabetes-associated peptide hormones in the follicular fluid and serum of obese polycystic ovary syndrome patients are associated with suboptimal ovarian response. IVF Lite 2016; 3:110-4. DOI: 10.4103/2348-2907.204672
Morgan, M.S., Arlian, L.G., Rider, Jr, S.D., Grunwald Jr., W.C., Cool. D.R A Proteomic Analysis of Sarcoptes scabiei (Acari: Sarcoptidae) J. Medical Entomology 2016; doi: 10.1093/jme/tjv247.
Hadar, Z, Sibai, B.M., Sonek, J.D.Sammohi, S, McKenna, D, Grunwald, Jr, W.C., Cool, D.R., Effect of Tocolytic Medications on The Synthesis and Secretion of Surfactant Lipids in an in Vitro Human Lung Cell Model, Amer J Perinatology 2015; 32(14) 1351-1358; DOI: 10.1055/s-0035-1566306.
Grunwald, Jr., W.C., Morris, M., Kykylo, W., Cool, D.R., Oxytocin Gene and Peptide Analysis in Children With Autism: A Preliminary Case Study. Med. Res. Arch., [S.l.], n. 1:1-11 jan. 2015. ISSN 2375-1924. Available at: <http://journals.ke-i.org/index.php/mra/article/view/19/8>. Date accessed: 27 Apr. 2015.
Rutherford, C.M.. ,Grunwald, Jr., W. C., Garrett, C.M., Cool, D.R., Cutaneous effect of chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase and endocrine tissues in rats. J. Env. Imm. Toxicol. 2(2) 63-71. 10.7178/jeit.27 2014
Joshi, K., Rapp, C.R., Garrett, T.L., Schlager, J.T., Davidson, M.B., Cool, D.R., Lucot. J.B.,The effects of 8-OH-DPAT on neurodegeneration after sarin exposure. Toxicology.2013 Aug 9;310:22-8. doi: 10.1016/j.tox.2013.05.005. Epub May 18 2013
Ventolini, G., Gigax, S.E. Adelson, M.E., Cool, D.R., Vulvodynia and Fungal Association: A Preliminary Report, Medical Hypotheses 81 (2013) 228–230
Grobe, N., Elased, K., Cool, D.R., Morris, M., Mass Spectrometry for the molecular imaging of angiotensin metabolism in kidney. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab.2012 Apr;302(8):E1016-24. doi: 10.1152/ajpendo.00515.2011. [Abstract]
Yan, Z, Hoffmann, A., Kelly-Kaiser, E., Gruwald, Jr.,W.C., and Cool, D.R., Misfolding of mutated vasopressin causes ER-retention and activation of ER-stress markers in Neuro-2a cells. TONEUROJ 4: 136-146 2011DOI: 10.2174/1876528901104010136.
Lee, A.G, Cool, D.R., Grunwald, Jr., W.C, Neal, D.E., Buckmaster, C.L. Cheng, M.Y., Hyde, S., Lyons, D.M., and Parker, K.J., A novel oxytocin peptide in New World monkeys. Biology Letters, 7(4):584-587 2011 doi: 10.1098/rsbl.2011.0107
Southerland, B. Kulkarni-Datar, K, Grunwald, W, Ketcha, D. M., Cool, D.R., and Brown, T.L, Q-VE-OPh, a negative control for O-phenoxy-conjugated (-OPh) caspase inhibitors, Q-VD-OPh. J. Cell Death, 3: 33-40, 2010.
Grigsby, C., Rizki, M, Tamburino, L, Pitsch, R., Shiyanov, P, Cool, D.R., Metabolite Differentiation and Discovery Lab (MeDDL): A New Tool for Biomarker Discovery and Mass Spectral Visualization, Analytical Chemistry 82: 4386–4395,2010.
Cool, D.R., Jackson, S. & Waddell, K.S. Structural Requirements for Sorting Pro-Vasopressin to the Regulated Secretory Pathway in a Neuronal Cell Line. The Open Neuroendocrinology Journal 1: 1-8 (2008)
Ropp, S. A., W.C. Grunwald, Jr., Morris, M. and Cool, D.R., Pyridostigmine modulation of hypothalamic acetylcholinesterase in mice: evidence for a central effect. J. Med Chem Bio Rad Def. 6 (2008).
Polito III, A., Goldstein, D., Sanchez, L., Cool, D.R., and Morris, M, Urinary Oxytocin as a Non-Invasive Biomarker for Neurohypophyseal Hormone Secretion. Peptides 27(11): 2877-2884 (2006).
Chen, Y., Hoffmann, A., Cool, D.R. and Morris, M, Adenovirus Mediated Small Interference RNA for In Vivo Silencing of Angiotensin AT1a Receptors in Mouse Brain. Hypertension 47:1-8 (2006).
Hoffmann, A. and Cool, D.R., Characterization of two polyclonal peptide antibodies that recognize the carboxy-terminus of angiotensin II type 1A and 1B receptors.Clin.Exp. Pharmacol. Physiol. 32 (11): 936-943 (2005).
Elased K, Cool D.R., Morris M. Novel Mass Spectrometric Methods for Evaluation of Plasma ACE1 and Renin. Hypertension, 46: 953-959 (2005).
Hardiman, A., Friedman, T.C., Grunwald, W.C., Furuta, W., Steiner, D.F. and Cool, D.R., Endocrinomic Analysis of Vasopressin and Oxytocin processing in PC1/3 and PC2 Processing Enzyme Knockout Mice by SELDI-TOF Mass Spectrometry J. Mol. Endocrinol. 34: 739-751 (2005).
Chen, Y., Liu-Stratton, Y., Hassanain, H., Cool, D.R. and Morris, M., Dietary Sodium Regulates Angiotensin AT1a and AT1b mRNA Expression in Mouse Brain Analyzed by Quantitative Real-time PCR. Experimental Neurology, 188: 238-245 (2004).
† Cool, D.R. and Hardiman, A. C-terminal sequencing of peptide hormones using carboxypeptidase Y and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Biotechniques 36: 32-34 (2004)
† Recommended Read by Faculty of 1000 WebSite, March 2004—Factor 3.0
Cool, D.R. and DeBrosse, D., Extraction of oxytocin and arginine-vasopressin from serum and plasma for radioimmunoassay and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry. J. Chromatography B, 792: 375-380 (2003).
Hoffmann, A. and Cool, D.R. Angiotensin II receptor types 1A, 1B and 2 expression in Neuro-2a cells. J. Receptors and Signal Transduction, 23: 111-121 (2003).
2007-present American Society for Mass Spectrometry
2007 Faculty Development Award- BSOM November 13, 2007
1996 NIH- Fellows Award for Research Excellence.
Identification of a Receptor Mediating the Sorting of Pro-opiomelanocortin to the Regulated Secretory Pathway.
1995 - 1997- Intramural Research Training Award (IRTA) NIH/NICHD-LDN
1990 Sigma Xi Annual Outstanding Research Paper Award- Honorable Mention
1989 Outstanding Paper Presented by a Graduate Student - Georgia Academy of Science.